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Hyman, 1996 Initiation and adaptation: a paradigm for understanding psychotropic drug action.


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#1 Altostrata

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Posted 04 April 2013 - 03:08 PM

A description of how psychiatric drugs, as well as other psychotropics, perturb normal homeostasis, requiring a neurological adaptation that leads to physical dependency and withdrawal difficulties.

According to Corinna West on her blog http://corinnawest.c...off-psych-meds/

Steven Hyman [author of this paper, then director of the US NIMH] explained that all psychotropic medications, both illicit substances and prescribed medications, work by “causing perturbations in normal neurotransmitter functioning.” Robert Whitaker quoted this article [June 2011] in his keynote address at the National Empowerment Center’s conference where activists came together to figure out what to do about the over-prescription of psychiatric medications. This article says, “The immediate molecular targets of these drugs in the nervous system initiate perturbations that activate homeostatic mechanisms...until cellular signalling reaches an adapted state which may be qualitatively and quantitatively different from the normal state.” These adaptations are things like up-regulation of transmitters being blocked and down-regulation of transmitters being boosted. When the drug is withdrawn, these adaptions remain. Robert Whitaker said, “For the illicit drugs, we call this process addiction. For the prescribed medications, we call this process therapeutic.” This is why psychiatric medications are so hard to get off....


Thanks to Gianna Kali, the above also quoted on her blog http://beyondmeds.co...5/greatoffmeds/

Am J Psychiatry. 1996 Feb;153(2):151-62.
Initiation and adaptation: a paradigm for understanding psychotropic drug action.
Hyman SE, Nestler EJ.

Source

Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown 02129, USA.

Abstract at http://www.ncbi.nlm..../pubmed/8561194 Full text https://docs.google....hH3SuIOwzS7mkQw

OBJECTIVE:

This article describes a paradigm--initiation and adaptation--within which to conceptualize the drug-induced neural plasticity that underlies the long-term actions of psychotropic drugs in the brain.

METHOD:

Recent advances in neurobiology are reviewed.

RESULTS:

Recent developments in cellular and molecular neurobiology provide new conceptual and experimental tools for understanding the mechanisms by which psychotropic drugs produce long-lived alterations in brain function. Because of the availability of more robust animal models, the mechanisms by which drugs of abuse produce dependence are better understood than the mechanisms by which antidepressants, antipsychotics, and lithium produce their therapeutic effects. Nonetheless, the fundamental types of mechanisms appear to be similar: chronic drug administration drives the production of adaptations in postreceptor signaling pathways, including regulation of neural gene expression. Whether the results are deleterious or therapeutic depends on the precise neural systems targeted by a particular drug.

CONCLUSIONS:

Biological investigation in psychiatry has often focused too narrowly on synaptic pharmacology, especially on neurotransmitter turnover and neurotransmitter receptors. This review focuses on molecular and cellular changes in neural function that are produced as adaptations to chronic administration of addictive drugs such as psychostimulants and therapeutic drugs such as antidepressants. To understand normal brain function, psychopathology, and the actions of psychiatric treatments, and to exploit the eventual findings of psychiatric genetics, psychiatric research must now extend its efforts beyond the synapse, to an understanding of cellular and molecular neurobiology (in particular, postreceptor signal transduction) as well as to a better understanding of the architecture and function of neural systems. A paradigm is presented to help understand the long-term effects of psychotropic drugs, including the latency in onset of their therapeutic actions.
This is not medical advice. Discuss any decisions about your medical care with a knowledgeable medical practitioner.

"It has become appallingly obvious that our technology has surpassed our humanity." -- Albert Einstein

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#2 Altostrata

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Posted 04 April 2013 - 03:27 PM

From a presentation by Robert Whitaker http://contextualsci...t.Whitaker.pdf.


Psychotropic Drugs


Stephen Hyman, former director of the NIMH, 1996:

• Psychiatric medications “create perturbations in neurotransmitter

• In response, the brain goes through a series of compensatory adaptations in order “to maintain their equilibrium in the face of alterations in the environment or changes in the internal milieu.”

• The “chronic administration” of the drugs then cause “substantial and long-lasting alterations in neural function.”

• After a few weeks, the person’s brain is now functioning in a manner that is “qualitatively as well as quantitatively different from the normal state.”

Source: Hyman, S. “Initiation and adaptation: A paradigm for understanding psychotropic drug action.” Am J
Psychiatry 153 (1996):151-61.
This is not medical advice. Discuss any decisions about your medical care with a knowledgeable medical practitioner.

"It has become appallingly obvious that our technology has surpassed our humanity." -- Albert Einstein

All postings © copyrighted.

#3 nz11

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Posted 01 August 2016 - 03:23 PM

Just stumbled upon this post while searching in google for this very thing.

 

Great post.

Cant believe that in 3 years no one has been appreciative of this post.

The Whitaker presentation link doesn't appear to work.

 

I checked out C Wests link .above...just loved the opening sentence, "I’m not anti-medication, but I am anti-bullsh*t."

 

nz11

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2000 amitryptaline, nortriptaline venlafaxine clonazepam for  arm pain from keyboard use, told I had a chemical imbalance it would fix my arm was just a matter of finding the right med for me not informed of the nature of these drugs assured safe and not addictive, CT off Effexor after being told to double the dose on reporting adverse effects...later ..uncharacteristic psych panic tearful presented to doctor to get answers. Given paroxetine no questions asked 'safe and not addictive' next please.2001-2010 paroxetine (paxil) 2 failed attempts to quit, a learned helplessness set in. Feb 10 - Sept 10,  8 month clueless taper, hell. Doc said I had underlying depression .. I said that's not right' then found online support group and the truth!...overcome with inconceivable humiliation and outrage. 28 Sept 10 drug free ...  daily psych and emotional torture beginning in the waking hours of the morning receding somewhat in the evening only to start up again the next day. 28 Sept 12 (24 months) Stabilizing  (What an indescribable unimaginable non-functional nightmare). sleep issues start up at 3 yrs  waking daily at 2am -4.30am), April 2016 return to sport for the first time since drug free, Sept 16 return to work on casual basis.  28 Sept 16 (6yrs drug free), still cant sleep with any regularity, pssd continues no sign of improvement, still feel Rip van Winkle-ish, brain fog still improving, psoriasis concerns.

 

"It is unsafe for people who suffer from something that could be treated with an ssri to consult a psychiatrist." Gotzshe 2015. [ I think Gotzsche could have easily meant to say 'to consult anyone with prescribing privileges']. "Going to a psychiatrist is one of the most dangerous actions a person can take." Breggin

 

“Paroxetine is not safe, it is not effective and it meets every known definition of addictive.” McLaren, N, (2016) 'Psychiatry as bullsh*t’ p55..."Psychiatry is stuffed full of 'deep nonsense' better known as bullsh*t." McLaren 2016

 

"Within the first week of when you go on an antidepressant you may have a sexual dysfunction, it can go on forever, often only appearing when you go off the drug ...its extraordinarily common" Healy 2015

 

See  my intro post #451 for the xanax back story and for a CV -GSKs.  Come on guys get taperwise see a TaperMe Schedule

 For a staggeringly shocking 'prozac back story' see the truth post #523

 

"If I were an enemy combatant and the NZ army did this to me someone would be dragged to the Hague and jailed!"  nz11