Jump to content

If you find useful information here, your gift would help keep this site going. Our staff is entirely volunteer.

Photo
- - - - -

Colonoscopy?


  • Please log in to reply
68 replies to this topic

#37 compsports

compsports

    Platinum star

  • Members
  • PipPipPipPipPip
  • 2,353 posts
  • LocationUnited States

Posted 29 August 2016 - 03:07 AM

Hi Ikam,

 

You might want to see if a low carb diet would help your acid reflux.   I have a book by a scientist (sorry can't find it) in which he cured his by doing that.   So when you are ready to taper the PPI, you might find it easier although obviously, since I am not a doctor, I offer no guarantees.

 

Best of luck to you.

 

CS


Drug cocktail 1995 - 2010
Started taper of Adderall, Wellbutrin XL, Remeron, and Doxepin in 2006
Finished taper on June 10, 2010

Diagnosed with sleep apnea 2012 and on pap machine

Dealing with protracted sleep issues


#38 Altostrata

Altostrata

    Administrator

  • Administrators
  • PipPipPipPipPipPip
  • 23,894 posts
  • LocationSan Francisco, CA

Posted 29 August 2016 - 08:38 AM

Yes, you need to taper a PPI when you go off, or you may get rebound reflux.


This is not medical advice. Discuss any decisions about your medical care with a knowledgeable medical practitioner.

"It has become appallingly obvious that our technology has surpassed our humanity." -- Albert Einstein

All postings © copyrighted.

#39 Frogie

Frogie

    Silver star

  • Members
  • PipPipPip
  • 751 posts
  • LocationUSA

Posted 29 August 2016 - 09:18 AM

Hi Ikam:
I had colonoscopy last year. I was scared also because I was having uncontrollable diarrhea. They gave me versed and fentanyl which neither put me in la la land because I was taking Valium at the time. The dr and nurse talked me through the whole thing. They showed me everything. I did experience a little discomfort but nothing too bad. The good thing was I got to go home right away (my fiancé drove) because I was wide awake and don't have to go through it again for 10 years!

PREVIOUS medications and discontinuations:  Zoloft,  1997-1999; switch to Paxil,  1999-2002 ___

2009 - 2015: Gabapentin, 900mg, 2010-2015: tapered of 9 weeks, last dose Sept. 2015, no symptoms ___ Lamictal, 300mg, 2009-2015, taper of 6 weeks, last dose Oct 2015,

no symptoms ___ Valium, 40mg, 2008-2015, 8 week taper, last dose Dec 2015, no symptoms ___ 

2016: Carafate 1mg (anti-ulcer med) 4x a day as needed. Prescribed but not taking it. ___ Prilosec 40mg; 28-Aug

started 25% taper; 1-Oct 20mg a.m. + 15mg p.m. Stopped Nov 26, 2016 w/rebound acid but not too bad.

---CURRENT MEDICATIONS---

Supplements: 150 mg Mag chloride, 350mg Krill Oil, Milk Thistle, Probiotic

For nausea as needed: Zantac, 300mg only "as needed". Zofran 4mg for nausea; only take it when nausea is unbearable.

Xanax, 3 mg in 4 split doses, 2008-present

Lexpro: 2002 - March 2016: 20 mg; Mar-Apr 2016: 8 week taper 20 mg - 10 mg; 8-June 9mg; 13-June 10 mg; 11-Sep 7.5 mg; 25-Sep 5 mg; 5-Oct 10mg; started taking Liquid Lexapro in Nov 2016; started taper with liquid 1-Jan-17 9mg; 22-Jan 8.1mg; 22-Feb 7.3 mg,


#40 wareagle82

wareagle82

    Member

  • Members
  • PipPip
  • 76 posts
  • LocationSouth Carolina

Posted 29 August 2016 - 10:31 AM

I had a consultation with gastrologist on Friday. He wants me to do CT Colonography, as he wants to find the reason for my anaemia. Unfortunately I will need to take some contrast medication prior to the procedure: https://www.drugs.co...de-effects.html

I am really concerned that this will affect me badly...

I tried to talk to him about PPI, and he said "it looks you are dependant so you will need to take it for life!"...

He was talking about anaemia and iron deficiency and did not even mention they may be a result of PPI!

Wow the doc should know that.  Also, SSRI's can block iron absorption.  I know that Zoloft does, so even though I was not technically anemic by doctors testing, my acupuncturist treated me for it.  Made a world of difference. I took Floradix for four months, a liquid iron supplement.  Maybe you should take in an article on SSRIs and anemia.  Or maybe find a new doc.  He sounds like a real loser as most GI docs do NOT recommend PPI's for life.  So many reasons that I won't bother to list them.


Began Paxil for situational panic attacks in 2000. Then psych put me on Prozac to transition me to Lexapro in 2008. I forget the dosage of Paxil and Lexapro. Switched to100mg Sertraline since 2011.

 

75Mg taper began 06/21/2016. 67.5 mg taper began 07/10/2016. 61mg taper began 08/01/2016. 54mg taper began 08/24/2016. 48mg taper began 09/06/2016. 44mg taper began 09/20/2016. 40mg taper began 10/11/2016. 35mg began 10/25/2016. 25 mg began 11/15/2016.  20 mg began 12/03/2016.  12.5 mg began 12/22/2016.  DRUG FREE JANUARY 16, 2017!!

 

Began daily meditation 12/01/2016.  Very helpful!!

 

Prayer, always, and Acupuncture, as needed.<p>Isaiah 50:7 (NLT): Because the Sovereign Lord helps me, I will not be dismayed. Therefore, I have set my face like a stone, determined to do his will. And I know that I will triumph!


#41 ikam

ikam

    Gold star

  • Members
  • PipPipPipPip
  • 1,249 posts
  • Locationuk

Posted 29 August 2016 - 10:53 AM

I was surprised when he said that "I am dependat and I have to take it for life" .

​I will make my own decision at some point, as I have done with SSRI...

 

I told my GP about that iron deficiency may be related to PPI, so she said she has other patients and they don't have anaemia, so I must be bleeding internally...

 

I will get this CT scan, just to have them to reconsider other aspects...I am not scared of the procedure. I am scared that the meds they asked me to take as a preparation may interact with Escitalopram...

I am not going to get sedated...I did not with endoscopy and survived...

This has become real "medical fashion", they sedate everybody...

 

I will at some point get on low carb diet...I will find  my way...


- Started various antidepresants in 1983 (doxepin, amitriptiline, anafranil), always stopped abruptly and then reintroduced; Long term use of benzos since 1983, on and off, in times prolonged use
- 2012 re-started Doxepin 75mg, evening. Atenolol 25mg, twice a day (both as a migraine prevention); Low dose of HRT (Sandrena gel +  Utrogestan 100mg)- evening; Nasal spray Otrivine for about 3 years- evening and morning (Used to abuse nasal spray for years). PPI Omeprazole 40mg-evening

- 24.10.2014- Started escitalopram-first 5mg and then 10mg; 5.01.2015- Escitalopram- 2.5mg (I had an adverse response to escitalopram and doxepin; hence I was decreasing escitalopram faster)

- June 2015- decreased Doxepin from 75mg to 50mg; 28 November- intentional over-dose (doxepin- 250mg). 1-2 April- over-dose 350mg, 17.07.2016 Doxepin 150mg- intentional over-dose(Tendency to overdose when stressed out...)

- 22.07.2016- reduced by 1%, 29.07- reduced by 2%, 2.08- reduced by 3%, 9.08- reduced by 4%. Holding for 5 weeks

- 13.09- reduced by 5%, 20.09- reduced by 6%, 27.09.2016 reduced by 7% , 4.10- reduced by 8% = 2.3mg. Holding for 5 weeks

- 14.11- reduced by 9%, 22.11- reduced by 10% = 2.25mg HOLDING

-20.12- changed my diet and supplements protocol; Ionic Liquid Iron twice 100ml, Liquid Zynk- twice- 50ml, MegaMag Liquid- evening 100ml, Curcumin 600mg x 3 a day Burdock Root + Epsom Baths. Changed diet to Protein one + Veg; Avoiding carbs. Protein Shake (Pure Power Protein Powder by Mercola) + Supergreens + Coconut Oils, Himalayan Salt with lemon


#42 Frogie

Frogie

    Silver star

  • Members
  • PipPipPip
  • 751 posts
  • LocationUSA

Posted 29 August 2016 - 11:04 AM

I was surprised when he said that "I am dependat and I have to take it for life" .
​I will make my own decision at some point, as I have done with SSRI...
 
I told my GP about that iron deficiency may be related to PPI, so she said she has other patients and they don't have anaemia, so I must be bleeding internally...
 
I will get this CT scan, just to have them to reconsider other aspects...I am not scared of the procedure. I am scared that the meds they asked me to take as a preparation may interact with Escitalopram...
I am not going to get sedated...I did not with endoscopy and survived...
This has become real "medical fashion", they sedate everybody...
 
I will at some point get on low carb diet...I will find  my way...


Dr.s now days seem to say whatever the pharmaceutical company wants to hear in my opinion. You will make the right desicion for you and your body. Good luck!

PREVIOUS medications and discontinuations:  Zoloft,  1997-1999; switch to Paxil,  1999-2002 ___

2009 - 2015: Gabapentin, 900mg, 2010-2015: tapered of 9 weeks, last dose Sept. 2015, no symptoms ___ Lamictal, 300mg, 2009-2015, taper of 6 weeks, last dose Oct 2015,

no symptoms ___ Valium, 40mg, 2008-2015, 8 week taper, last dose Dec 2015, no symptoms ___ 

2016: Carafate 1mg (anti-ulcer med) 4x a day as needed. Prescribed but not taking it. ___ Prilosec 40mg; 28-Aug

started 25% taper; 1-Oct 20mg a.m. + 15mg p.m. Stopped Nov 26, 2016 w/rebound acid but not too bad.

---CURRENT MEDICATIONS---

Supplements: 150 mg Mag chloride, 350mg Krill Oil, Milk Thistle, Probiotic

For nausea as needed: Zantac, 300mg only "as needed". Zofran 4mg for nausea; only take it when nausea is unbearable.

Xanax, 3 mg in 4 split doses, 2008-present

Lexpro: 2002 - March 2016: 20 mg; Mar-Apr 2016: 8 week taper 20 mg - 10 mg; 8-June 9mg; 13-June 10 mg; 11-Sep 7.5 mg; 25-Sep 5 mg; 5-Oct 10mg; started taking Liquid Lexapro in Nov 2016; started taper with liquid 1-Jan-17 9mg; 22-Jan 8.1mg; 22-Feb 7.3 mg,


#43 Chuck83

Chuck83

    Member

  • Members
  • PipPip
  • 60 posts
  • LocationItaly

Posted 01 September 2016 - 04:09 AM

I had virtual colonoscopy monday, and it was one most horrible and brutal experience of my life. The preparation was brutal, the laxative I used called Lovol dyl and Lovol Esse( I think is the same of miralex) give me 18 discharge of bloody diarrhea, They have strongly inflamed my hemorrhoids, now I am dehydrated, and I can not drink a lot because my stomach and intestines are really inflamed, I can do only small drinks.


2001, Amisulpride (deniban) - 3 months, I taper in some weeks

2001, Seroquel, 4 weeks - quit cold turkey, 2001. Efexxor,  one pill adverse reaction

2002. Amitryptaline (mutabon mite) - 4 months, I taper really faster in some weeks

around more 10 years drug free

4 December 2013, 7 drops of citalopram , adverse reaction

December    2013, Italian supplement called serenplus with tryptophan, 9 pills adverse reaction, quit cold turkey.

After December 2013, Im drug free.

 

 

 

 

 


#44 Chuck83

Chuck83

    Member

  • Members
  • PipPip
  • 60 posts
  • LocationItaly

Posted 01 September 2016 - 04:28 AM

The Nurse also Injected me with buscopan without my permission, and I am really sensitive to the meds, I had hallucinations and drowsiness for a day, now I have cramps shortness of breath, decrease urination(now improved) pain in the stomach and the lower part of the intestine, and I'm afraid that the two laxatives may have damaged my kidneys, I didn't want take them, but in the small hospital where I had virtual colonoscopy was not there an alternative preparation, I believe that magnesium citrate would be much better than they Lovol Esse (polyethylene glycol). I still have nightmares of 18 discharges of diarrhea and to all the blood I lost from my inflammed hemorrhoids.


2001, Amisulpride (deniban) - 3 months, I taper in some weeks

2001, Seroquel, 4 weeks - quit cold turkey, 2001. Efexxor,  one pill adverse reaction

2002. Amitryptaline (mutabon mite) - 4 months, I taper really faster in some weeks

around more 10 years drug free

4 December 2013, 7 drops of citalopram , adverse reaction

December    2013, Italian supplement called serenplus with tryptophan, 9 pills adverse reaction, quit cold turkey.

After December 2013, Im drug free.

 

 

 

 

 


#45 Altostrata

Altostrata

    Administrator

  • Administrators
  • PipPipPipPipPipPip
  • 23,894 posts
  • LocationSan Francisco, CA

Posted 01 September 2016 - 08:49 AM

Unfortunately, it seems there is no way around taking the laxative chemicals to clean out the bowels in preparation for a colonoscopy. I investigated this myself.


This is not medical advice. Discuss any decisions about your medical care with a knowledgeable medical practitioner.

"It has become appallingly obvious that our technology has surpassed our humanity." -- Albert Einstein

All postings © copyrighted.

#46 Frogie

Frogie

    Silver star

  • Members
  • PipPipPip
  • 751 posts
  • LocationUSA

Posted 01 September 2016 - 09:28 AM

Unfortunately, it seems there is no way around taking the laxative chemicals to clean out the bowels in preparation for a colonoscopy. I investigated this myself.


Where I live, they had 4 different ones to choose from. I got the one you only had to drink 2 glasses, but the dr said I was so clean he could see everything. I will never use that golightly again that is the worst!

PREVIOUS medications and discontinuations:  Zoloft,  1997-1999; switch to Paxil,  1999-2002 ___

2009 - 2015: Gabapentin, 900mg, 2010-2015: tapered of 9 weeks, last dose Sept. 2015, no symptoms ___ Lamictal, 300mg, 2009-2015, taper of 6 weeks, last dose Oct 2015,

no symptoms ___ Valium, 40mg, 2008-2015, 8 week taper, last dose Dec 2015, no symptoms ___ 

2016: Carafate 1mg (anti-ulcer med) 4x a day as needed. Prescribed but not taking it. ___ Prilosec 40mg; 28-Aug

started 25% taper; 1-Oct 20mg a.m. + 15mg p.m. Stopped Nov 26, 2016 w/rebound acid but not too bad.

---CURRENT MEDICATIONS---

Supplements: 150 mg Mag chloride, 350mg Krill Oil, Milk Thistle, Probiotic

For nausea as needed: Zantac, 300mg only "as needed". Zofran 4mg for nausea; only take it when nausea is unbearable.

Xanax, 3 mg in 4 split doses, 2008-present

Lexpro: 2002 - March 2016: 20 mg; Mar-Apr 2016: 8 week taper 20 mg - 10 mg; 8-June 9mg; 13-June 10 mg; 11-Sep 7.5 mg; 25-Sep 5 mg; 5-Oct 10mg; started taking Liquid Lexapro in Nov 2016; started taper with liquid 1-Jan-17 9mg; 22-Jan 8.1mg; 22-Feb 7.3 mg,


#47 Chuck83

Chuck83

    Member

  • Members
  • PipPip
  • 60 posts
  • LocationItaly

Posted 01 September 2016 - 12:02 PM

Unfortunately, it seems there is no way around taking the laxative chemicals to clean out the bowels in preparation for a colonoscopy. I investigated this myself.

 

Yes this is true but some people They have lost their kidneys from some synthetic laxatives and they and needed a transplant.


2001, Amisulpride (deniban) - 3 months, I taper in some weeks

2001, Seroquel, 4 weeks - quit cold turkey, 2001. Efexxor,  one pill adverse reaction

2002. Amitryptaline (mutabon mite) - 4 months, I taper really faster in some weeks

around more 10 years drug free

4 December 2013, 7 drops of citalopram , adverse reaction

December    2013, Italian supplement called serenplus with tryptophan, 9 pills adverse reaction, quit cold turkey.

After December 2013, Im drug free.

 

 

 

 

 


#48 Frogie

Frogie

    Silver star

  • Members
  • PipPipPip
  • 751 posts
  • LocationUSA

Posted 01 September 2016 - 02:26 PM

Unfortunately, it seems there is no way around taking the laxative chemicals to clean out the bowels in preparation for a colonoscopy. I investigated this myself.

 
Yes this is true but some people They have lost their kidneys from some synthetic laxatives and they and needed a transplant.

Wow I didn't know that good thing I don't have to have another one for 9 years!

PREVIOUS medications and discontinuations:  Zoloft,  1997-1999; switch to Paxil,  1999-2002 ___

2009 - 2015: Gabapentin, 900mg, 2010-2015: tapered of 9 weeks, last dose Sept. 2015, no symptoms ___ Lamictal, 300mg, 2009-2015, taper of 6 weeks, last dose Oct 2015,

no symptoms ___ Valium, 40mg, 2008-2015, 8 week taper, last dose Dec 2015, no symptoms ___ 

2016: Carafate 1mg (anti-ulcer med) 4x a day as needed. Prescribed but not taking it. ___ Prilosec 40mg; 28-Aug

started 25% taper; 1-Oct 20mg a.m. + 15mg p.m. Stopped Nov 26, 2016 w/rebound acid but not too bad.

---CURRENT MEDICATIONS---

Supplements: 150 mg Mag chloride, 350mg Krill Oil, Milk Thistle, Probiotic

For nausea as needed: Zantac, 300mg only "as needed". Zofran 4mg for nausea; only take it when nausea is unbearable.

Xanax, 3 mg in 4 split doses, 2008-present

Lexpro: 2002 - March 2016: 20 mg; Mar-Apr 2016: 8 week taper 20 mg - 10 mg; 8-June 9mg; 13-June 10 mg; 11-Sep 7.5 mg; 25-Sep 5 mg; 5-Oct 10mg; started taking Liquid Lexapro in Nov 2016; started taper with liquid 1-Jan-17 9mg; 22-Jan 8.1mg; 22-Feb 7.3 mg,


#49 ikam

ikam

    Gold star

  • Members
  • PipPipPipPip
  • 1,249 posts
  • Locationuk

Posted 04 September 2016 - 07:25 AM

I have CT Colonography without the use of laxatives. But I will have to use- Omnipaque
https://www.drugs.co...de-effects.html

 

My procedure has been scheduled for 21st September...

I am still unsure what to do...

I did refuse Colonoscopy, but I think I cannot refuse this one...


- Started various antidepresants in 1983 (doxepin, amitriptiline, anafranil), always stopped abruptly and then reintroduced; Long term use of benzos since 1983, on and off, in times prolonged use
- 2012 re-started Doxepin 75mg, evening. Atenolol 25mg, twice a day (both as a migraine prevention); Low dose of HRT (Sandrena gel +  Utrogestan 100mg)- evening; Nasal spray Otrivine for about 3 years- evening and morning (Used to abuse nasal spray for years). PPI Omeprazole 40mg-evening

- 24.10.2014- Started escitalopram-first 5mg and then 10mg; 5.01.2015- Escitalopram- 2.5mg (I had an adverse response to escitalopram and doxepin; hence I was decreasing escitalopram faster)

- June 2015- decreased Doxepin from 75mg to 50mg; 28 November- intentional over-dose (doxepin- 250mg). 1-2 April- over-dose 350mg, 17.07.2016 Doxepin 150mg- intentional over-dose(Tendency to overdose when stressed out...)

- 22.07.2016- reduced by 1%, 29.07- reduced by 2%, 2.08- reduced by 3%, 9.08- reduced by 4%. Holding for 5 weeks

- 13.09- reduced by 5%, 20.09- reduced by 6%, 27.09.2016 reduced by 7% , 4.10- reduced by 8% = 2.3mg. Holding for 5 weeks

- 14.11- reduced by 9%, 22.11- reduced by 10% = 2.25mg HOLDING

-20.12- changed my diet and supplements protocol; Ionic Liquid Iron twice 100ml, Liquid Zynk- twice- 50ml, MegaMag Liquid- evening 100ml, Curcumin 600mg x 3 a day Burdock Root + Epsom Baths. Changed diet to Protein one + Veg; Avoiding carbs. Protein Shake (Pure Power Protein Powder by Mercola) + Supergreens + Coconut Oils, Himalayan Salt with lemon


#50 Chuck83

Chuck83

    Member

  • Members
  • PipPip
  • 60 posts
  • LocationItaly

Posted 04 September 2016 - 08:21 AM

I have virtual colonoscopy i think is the same, but they forced me on simethicone.


2001, Amisulpride (deniban) - 3 months, I taper in some weeks

2001, Seroquel, 4 weeks - quit cold turkey, 2001. Efexxor,  one pill adverse reaction

2002. Amitryptaline (mutabon mite) - 4 months, I taper really faster in some weeks

around more 10 years drug free

4 December 2013, 7 drops of citalopram , adverse reaction

December    2013, Italian supplement called serenplus with tryptophan, 9 pills adverse reaction, quit cold turkey.

After December 2013, Im drug free.

 

 

 

 

 


#51 Chuck83

Chuck83

    Member

  • Members
  • PipPip
  • 60 posts
  • LocationItaly

Posted 17 September 2016 - 09:45 AM

I have a fear  the virtual colonoscopy has caused me acute diverticulitis, for the cramps and spasms i have in the intestine, especially when I sit and when I eat the salad.

http://blogs.jwatch....tis/2011/02/14/

October 3 I have an appointment with the gastroenterologist .


2001, Amisulpride (deniban) - 3 months, I taper in some weeks

2001, Seroquel, 4 weeks - quit cold turkey, 2001. Efexxor,  one pill adverse reaction

2002. Amitryptaline (mutabon mite) - 4 months, I taper really faster in some weeks

around more 10 years drug free

4 December 2013, 7 drops of citalopram , adverse reaction

December    2013, Italian supplement called serenplus with tryptophan, 9 pills adverse reaction, quit cold turkey.

After December 2013, Im drug free.

 

 

 

 

 


#52 Frogie

Frogie

    Silver star

  • Members
  • PipPipPip
  • 751 posts
  • LocationUSA

Posted 18 September 2016 - 02:09 PM

I guess I was lucky with my colonoscopy. I had no polyps. The only bad thing was they could not get me sedated. They gave me all the meds they were allowed and I was wide awake. The dr talked me through it and I went right home. I don't know why I'm even on omeprazole and ranitidine, I never had GERD I went in for a stomach ache 10 years ago and came out with those meds. Time to go off. Living on a pretty bland diet but am off in about 3 weeks and haven't been sick yet. The dr. hasn't ever mentioned an endoscopy and hope he never does. But I don't have any symptoms. New dr. Believes only do it if you're broke lol...

Take care...

PREVIOUS medications and discontinuations:  Zoloft,  1997-1999; switch to Paxil,  1999-2002 ___

2009 - 2015: Gabapentin, 900mg, 2010-2015: tapered of 9 weeks, last dose Sept. 2015, no symptoms ___ Lamictal, 300mg, 2009-2015, taper of 6 weeks, last dose Oct 2015,

no symptoms ___ Valium, 40mg, 2008-2015, 8 week taper, last dose Dec 2015, no symptoms ___ 

2016: Carafate 1mg (anti-ulcer med) 4x a day as needed. Prescribed but not taking it. ___ Prilosec 40mg; 28-Aug

started 25% taper; 1-Oct 20mg a.m. + 15mg p.m. Stopped Nov 26, 2016 w/rebound acid but not too bad.

---CURRENT MEDICATIONS---

Supplements: 150 mg Mag chloride, 350mg Krill Oil, Milk Thistle, Probiotic

For nausea as needed: Zantac, 300mg only "as needed". Zofran 4mg for nausea; only take it when nausea is unbearable.

Xanax, 3 mg in 4 split doses, 2008-present

Lexpro: 2002 - March 2016: 20 mg; Mar-Apr 2016: 8 week taper 20 mg - 10 mg; 8-June 9mg; 13-June 10 mg; 11-Sep 7.5 mg; 25-Sep 5 mg; 5-Oct 10mg; started taking Liquid Lexapro in Nov 2016; started taper with liquid 1-Jan-17 9mg; 22-Jan 8.1mg; 22-Feb 7.3 mg,


#53 Chuck83

Chuck83

    Member

  • Members
  • PipPip
  • 60 posts
  • LocationItaly

Posted 18 September 2016 - 09:48 PM

For my virtual colonoscopy is bad and painful like traditional colonoscpy,  the nurse inject me Buscopan without my consent , since then I have shortness of breath, The first day I had hallucinations and extrapyramidal effects.

During  WD, except for type series conditions like rectal bleeding advise everyone to stay away from this procedure.


2001, Amisulpride (deniban) - 3 months, I taper in some weeks

2001, Seroquel, 4 weeks - quit cold turkey, 2001. Efexxor,  one pill adverse reaction

2002. Amitryptaline (mutabon mite) - 4 months, I taper really faster in some weeks

around more 10 years drug free

4 December 2013, 7 drops of citalopram , adverse reaction

December    2013, Italian supplement called serenplus with tryptophan, 9 pills adverse reaction, quit cold turkey.

After December 2013, Im drug free.

 

 

 

 

 


#54 Chuck83

Chuck83

    Member

  • Members
  • PipPip
  • 60 posts
  • LocationItaly

Posted 20 September 2016 - 03:57 AM

 Colonoscopy prep definitely takes away the desire to the eat for at least a month and more, like SSRIs WD.


2001, Amisulpride (deniban) - 3 months, I taper in some weeks

2001, Seroquel, 4 weeks - quit cold turkey, 2001. Efexxor,  one pill adverse reaction

2002. Amitryptaline (mutabon mite) - 4 months, I taper really faster in some weeks

around more 10 years drug free

4 December 2013, 7 drops of citalopram , adverse reaction

December    2013, Italian supplement called serenplus with tryptophan, 9 pills adverse reaction, quit cold turkey.

After December 2013, Im drug free.

 

 

 

 

 


#55 Frogie

Frogie

    Silver star

  • Members
  • PipPipPip
  • 751 posts
  • LocationUSA

Posted 20 September 2016 - 10:29 AM

Colonoscopy prep definitely takes away the desire to the eat for at least a month and more, like SSRIs WD.


I totally understand that. I'm WD from Lexapro and just have no appetite. I force myself to eat just small things.

PREVIOUS medications and discontinuations:  Zoloft,  1997-1999; switch to Paxil,  1999-2002 ___

2009 - 2015: Gabapentin, 900mg, 2010-2015: tapered of 9 weeks, last dose Sept. 2015, no symptoms ___ Lamictal, 300mg, 2009-2015, taper of 6 weeks, last dose Oct 2015,

no symptoms ___ Valium, 40mg, 2008-2015, 8 week taper, last dose Dec 2015, no symptoms ___ 

2016: Carafate 1mg (anti-ulcer med) 4x a day as needed. Prescribed but not taking it. ___ Prilosec 40mg; 28-Aug

started 25% taper; 1-Oct 20mg a.m. + 15mg p.m. Stopped Nov 26, 2016 w/rebound acid but not too bad.

---CURRENT MEDICATIONS---

Supplements: 150 mg Mag chloride, 350mg Krill Oil, Milk Thistle, Probiotic

For nausea as needed: Zantac, 300mg only "as needed". Zofran 4mg for nausea; only take it when nausea is unbearable.

Xanax, 3 mg in 4 split doses, 2008-present

Lexpro: 2002 - March 2016: 20 mg; Mar-Apr 2016: 8 week taper 20 mg - 10 mg; 8-June 9mg; 13-June 10 mg; 11-Sep 7.5 mg; 25-Sep 5 mg; 5-Oct 10mg; started taking Liquid Lexapro in Nov 2016; started taper with liquid 1-Jan-17 9mg; 22-Jan 8.1mg; 22-Feb 7.3 mg,


#56 ikam

ikam

    Gold star

  • Members
  • PipPipPipPip
  • 1,249 posts
  • Locationuk

Posted 23 December 2016 - 04:55 AM

they insist i have it done...i will ask to have it done with no anasthetic and sedation...

what I am concerned about is the medication i have to take to prepare my bowels...


- Started various antidepresants in 1983 (doxepin, amitriptiline, anafranil), always stopped abruptly and then reintroduced; Long term use of benzos since 1983, on and off, in times prolonged use
- 2012 re-started Doxepin 75mg, evening. Atenolol 25mg, twice a day (both as a migraine prevention); Low dose of HRT (Sandrena gel +  Utrogestan 100mg)- evening; Nasal spray Otrivine for about 3 years- evening and morning (Used to abuse nasal spray for years). PPI Omeprazole 40mg-evening

- 24.10.2014- Started escitalopram-first 5mg and then 10mg; 5.01.2015- Escitalopram- 2.5mg (I had an adverse response to escitalopram and doxepin; hence I was decreasing escitalopram faster)

- June 2015- decreased Doxepin from 75mg to 50mg; 28 November- intentional over-dose (doxepin- 250mg). 1-2 April- over-dose 350mg, 17.07.2016 Doxepin 150mg- intentional over-dose(Tendency to overdose when stressed out...)

- 22.07.2016- reduced by 1%, 29.07- reduced by 2%, 2.08- reduced by 3%, 9.08- reduced by 4%. Holding for 5 weeks

- 13.09- reduced by 5%, 20.09- reduced by 6%, 27.09.2016 reduced by 7% , 4.10- reduced by 8% = 2.3mg. Holding for 5 weeks

- 14.11- reduced by 9%, 22.11- reduced by 10% = 2.25mg HOLDING

-20.12- changed my diet and supplements protocol; Ionic Liquid Iron twice 100ml, Liquid Zynk- twice- 50ml, MegaMag Liquid- evening 100ml, Curcumin 600mg x 3 a day Burdock Root + Epsom Baths. Changed diet to Protein one + Veg; Avoiding carbs. Protein Shake (Pure Power Protein Powder by Mercola) + Supergreens + Coconut Oils, Himalayan Salt with lemon


#57 Frogie

Frogie

    Silver star

  • Members
  • PipPipPip
  • 751 posts
  • LocationUSA

Posted 23 December 2016 - 05:47 AM

they insist i have it done...i will ask to have it done with no anasthetic and sedation...
what I am concerned about is the medication i have to take to prepare my bowels...


I had one done a couple of years ago, no sedation. It was uncomfortable, but didn't kill me lol...

The stuff I drank cleaned me out, but didn't affect me any other way.

You will be fine.

Take care,
Frogie xx

PREVIOUS medications and discontinuations:  Zoloft,  1997-1999; switch to Paxil,  1999-2002 ___

2009 - 2015: Gabapentin, 900mg, 2010-2015: tapered of 9 weeks, last dose Sept. 2015, no symptoms ___ Lamictal, 300mg, 2009-2015, taper of 6 weeks, last dose Oct 2015,

no symptoms ___ Valium, 40mg, 2008-2015, 8 week taper, last dose Dec 2015, no symptoms ___ 

2016: Carafate 1mg (anti-ulcer med) 4x a day as needed. Prescribed but not taking it. ___ Prilosec 40mg; 28-Aug

started 25% taper; 1-Oct 20mg a.m. + 15mg p.m. Stopped Nov 26, 2016 w/rebound acid but not too bad.

---CURRENT MEDICATIONS---

Supplements: 150 mg Mag chloride, 350mg Krill Oil, Milk Thistle, Probiotic

For nausea as needed: Zantac, 300mg only "as needed". Zofran 4mg for nausea; only take it when nausea is unbearable.

Xanax, 3 mg in 4 split doses, 2008-present

Lexpro: 2002 - March 2016: 20 mg; Mar-Apr 2016: 8 week taper 20 mg - 10 mg; 8-June 9mg; 13-June 10 mg; 11-Sep 7.5 mg; 25-Sep 5 mg; 5-Oct 10mg; started taking Liquid Lexapro in Nov 2016; started taper with liquid 1-Jan-17 9mg; 22-Jan 8.1mg; 22-Feb 7.3 mg,


#58 Altostrata

Altostrata

    Administrator

  • Administrators
  • PipPipPipPipPipPip
  • 23,894 posts
  • LocationSan Francisco, CA

Posted 23 December 2016 - 05:34 PM

It is possible to have a colonoscopy without the sedatives. Discuss this with your gastroenterologist. If you want to do this, it helps if your gastroenterologist has done colonoscopy without sedation before.

 

Some people do have colons that are convoluted and find the procedure too uncomfortable to do without sedation. Small women are the most prone to this condition. However, I am a small woman and I had no problems whatsoever without a sedative. (You can't avoid the laxatives beforehand, though.)

 

My appetite was excellent after the procedure.

 

Had the colonoscopy yesterday.

 

There were a few ouchy moments -- intense pangs lasting a few seconds each -- and I wouldn't say it was fun, but the procedure itself wasn't that difficult.

 

The staff did their best to persuade me to get the anesthesia, but I held firm. They had an anesthesia plan B ready in case I found the pain unbearable.

 

I saw my entire colon and chatted with the gastroenterologist, nurse, and technician throughout.

 

The gastroenterologist said I had the colon of a teenager. It did look pink and healthy. She praised me for being so relaxed -- she said she could see it in my colon.

 

The team was amazed I did it without drugs. The doctor said she was so proud of me about 20 times.

 

In colonoscopy, as in all things "all things must pass." Have a good attitude and you, too, can do a colonoscopy without drugs.


This is not medical advice. Discuss any decisions about your medical care with a knowledgeable medical practitioner.

"It has become appallingly obvious that our technology has surpassed our humanity." -- Albert Einstein

All postings © copyrighted.

#59 ikam

ikam

    Gold star

  • Members
  • PipPipPipPip
  • 1,249 posts
  • Locationuk

Posted 24 December 2016 - 02:11 AM

THANK you Alto...


- Started various antidepresants in 1983 (doxepin, amitriptiline, anafranil), always stopped abruptly and then reintroduced; Long term use of benzos since 1983, on and off, in times prolonged use
- 2012 re-started Doxepin 75mg, evening. Atenolol 25mg, twice a day (both as a migraine prevention); Low dose of HRT (Sandrena gel +  Utrogestan 100mg)- evening; Nasal spray Otrivine for about 3 years- evening and morning (Used to abuse nasal spray for years). PPI Omeprazole 40mg-evening

- 24.10.2014- Started escitalopram-first 5mg and then 10mg; 5.01.2015- Escitalopram- 2.5mg (I had an adverse response to escitalopram and doxepin; hence I was decreasing escitalopram faster)

- June 2015- decreased Doxepin from 75mg to 50mg; 28 November- intentional over-dose (doxepin- 250mg). 1-2 April- over-dose 350mg, 17.07.2016 Doxepin 150mg- intentional over-dose(Tendency to overdose when stressed out...)

- 22.07.2016- reduced by 1%, 29.07- reduced by 2%, 2.08- reduced by 3%, 9.08- reduced by 4%. Holding for 5 weeks

- 13.09- reduced by 5%, 20.09- reduced by 6%, 27.09.2016 reduced by 7% , 4.10- reduced by 8% = 2.3mg. Holding for 5 weeks

- 14.11- reduced by 9%, 22.11- reduced by 10% = 2.25mg HOLDING

-20.12- changed my diet and supplements protocol; Ionic Liquid Iron twice 100ml, Liquid Zynk- twice- 50ml, MegaMag Liquid- evening 100ml, Curcumin 600mg x 3 a day Burdock Root + Epsom Baths. Changed diet to Protein one + Veg; Avoiding carbs. Protein Shake (Pure Power Protein Powder by Mercola) + Supergreens + Coconut Oils, Himalayan Salt with lemon


#60 Marsha

Marsha

    Silver star

  • Members
  • PipPipPip
  • 513 posts
  • LocationUS

Posted 24 December 2016 - 12:08 PM

I will be discussing with my gastroenterologist on how to do my second screening colonoscopy. First one was in 2003. Tried to get one in 2013 and was informed Medicare didn't pay for it. This is simply not true. Medicare does pay for colonoscopy every 10 years or more frequently if needed. If anything abnormal is found i will be contacting legal services.
Hashimotos 1988 started on levothyroxine. .1994-2012 all the different kinds of antidepressants. 1997 xanax 1.5 klonopin 2006. Geodon started 2003 160 mgs. Many neuroleptics. Seems like l have been on everything. gabapentin 1800 mg 2013 librium 75 mg then 60mg 5/15 Tapered trazodone from October 2014 450 mgs to march 2015 0 mgs. Geodon reduced from 80 mg 8/2014 to 0 12/19/15. switched to 3 mgs of clonazepam 11/15. 12/16 2 mg clonazepam. Currently 1.88 mg clonazepam 845 mg gabapentin. 88 mcg levothyroxine 10 mcg liothyronine. Tapered prevacid 8/16 after 6 six years use. Supplements:D3 2000 iu. Digestive enzymes, probiotic. No gluten, sugar, dairy. Eating nutrient dense foods to promote healing. Gentle daily walks in the fresh air.

#61 Altostrata

Altostrata

    Administrator

  • Administrators
  • PipPipPipPipPipPip
  • 23,894 posts
  • LocationSan Francisco, CA

Posted 24 December 2016 - 08:17 PM

In the US, non-invasive stool screening tests https://www.cdc.gov/...ening/tests.htmare approved. You get a kit to use at home, then mail a sample to the laboratory. This does not involve any pokes from instruments, laxatives, or sedatives.

 

If the screening test is positive, meaning blood in the stool, you need to get a colonoscopy even if the blood might be from hemorrhoids. But if it's negative, no further investigation is needed for this round.


This is not medical advice. Discuss any decisions about your medical care with a knowledgeable medical practitioner.

"It has become appallingly obvious that our technology has surpassed our humanity." -- Albert Einstein

All postings © copyrighted.

#62 Frogie

Frogie

    Silver star

  • Members
  • PipPipPip
  • 751 posts
  • LocationUSA

Posted 25 December 2016 - 06:51 AM

Ikam:

I will wish you the best in what ever choice you make. :)

Take care,
Frogie xx

PREVIOUS medications and discontinuations:  Zoloft,  1997-1999; switch to Paxil,  1999-2002 ___

2009 - 2015: Gabapentin, 900mg, 2010-2015: tapered of 9 weeks, last dose Sept. 2015, no symptoms ___ Lamictal, 300mg, 2009-2015, taper of 6 weeks, last dose Oct 2015,

no symptoms ___ Valium, 40mg, 2008-2015, 8 week taper, last dose Dec 2015, no symptoms ___ 

2016: Carafate 1mg (anti-ulcer med) 4x a day as needed. Prescribed but not taking it. ___ Prilosec 40mg; 28-Aug

started 25% taper; 1-Oct 20mg a.m. + 15mg p.m. Stopped Nov 26, 2016 w/rebound acid but not too bad.

---CURRENT MEDICATIONS---

Supplements: 150 mg Mag chloride, 350mg Krill Oil, Milk Thistle, Probiotic

For nausea as needed: Zantac, 300mg only "as needed". Zofran 4mg for nausea; only take it when nausea is unbearable.

Xanax, 3 mg in 4 split doses, 2008-present

Lexpro: 2002 - March 2016: 20 mg; Mar-Apr 2016: 8 week taper 20 mg - 10 mg; 8-June 9mg; 13-June 10 mg; 11-Sep 7.5 mg; 25-Sep 5 mg; 5-Oct 10mg; started taking Liquid Lexapro in Nov 2016; started taper with liquid 1-Jan-17 9mg; 22-Jan 8.1mg; 22-Feb 7.3 mg,


#63 Bridgetini

Bridgetini

    Member

  • Members
  • PipPip
  • 15 posts
  • LocationIreland

Posted 11 January 2017 - 08:13 AM

Hi, I am reading posts about the side/after effects of the cleansing agents and sedatives for colonoscopy and now am more afraid of them than the experience of having the endoscope inserted!

Thanks for all the helpful advice above.

My situation: I am on Efexor XL (max dose) and loraxepam and mirtazapine. I have been super constipated by Mirt since I started taking it in 2014, so I take senna tablets or tea each day, 2 psyllium husk tablets, cut out all gluten from my diet last September (2016), and am cutting down on caffeine. I also have tapered down Mirt from 7.5 mg/day to 3.6 mg/day over the last 9 months. All this is helping me to get my bowels moving a bit. BUT my psychiatrist recommended that I have a colonoscopy to check if there is anything else causing the constipation/bloating with wheat/hemorroids when I am constipated. I told him and my own general practitioner (family doctor) that I did not see any point in undergoing such an unpleasant and invasive procedure until I had fully withdrawn from Mirtazapine. However, my doctor has booked me a colonoscopy for mid February.

My gut feeling (!) is that the combination of meds, especially Mirt + Lorazapam, is causing sluggish digestion, and as I keep tapering, this will subside more. 

 

I know that the decision is mine only, but I really don't want to have to go through the procedure to be told that I have hemerroids and some IBD, maybe a few polyps...

I also know that bowel cancer is a killer and can go unnoticed...

 

Any advice greatly appreciated. Thank you.


Oct. 7th, 2016: 4.5 mg Mirtazapine + 1.5 mg Lorazepam + 375 mg Venlafaxine

July 28th, 2016: 5.0 mg Mirtazapine + 1.5 mg Lorazepam + 375 mg Venlafaxine

July 4th, 2016: 5.5 mg Mirtazapine + 1.5 mg Lorazepam + 375 mg Venlafaxine

June 21, 2016: 5.5 mg Mirtazapine + 1.5 mg Lorazepam + 375 mg Venlafaxine 

May 30, 2016: 6.0 mg Mirtazapine + 1.5 mg Lorazepam + 375 mg Venlafaxine 

May 8, 2016: 6.75 mg Mirtazapine + 1.5 mg Lorazepam + 375 mg Venlafaxine 

Feb. 2015: 7.5 mg Mirtazapine + 1.5 mg Lorazepam + 375 mg Venlafaxine (Mirt. prescribed for drug-resistant depression as I was already on max. dose of Venlafaxine)

Dec. 2014: 1.5 mg Lorazepam + 375 mg Venlafaxine

Nov: 2014: 8 mg Lorazepam + 375 mg Venlafaxine


#64 compsports

compsports

    Platinum star

  • Members
  • PipPipPipPipPip
  • 2,353 posts
  • LocationUnited States

Posted 11 January 2017 - 08:32 AM

HI,

 

How old are you and is there a history of colon cancer in your family?  If you are 50 and older and the answer is yes for a positive history, I would advise you to have it.   

 

As one who has an appointment with a gastro this month to schedule a colonoscopy, I am not looking forward to it so I understand your trepidation. But with my family history of colon cancer and being way overdue, I gotta suck it up.   Sorry bad choice of words.:)


Drug cocktail 1995 - 2010
Started taper of Adderall, Wellbutrin XL, Remeron, and Doxepin in 2006
Finished taper on June 10, 2010

Diagnosed with sleep apnea 2012 and on pap machine

Dealing with protracted sleep issues


#65 Bridgetini

Bridgetini

    Member

  • Members
  • PipPip
  • 15 posts
  • LocationIreland

Posted 11 January 2017 - 08:54 AM

Hi Platinum star, I am in my mid-40s and am not aware of a family history, but will have to ask to confirm.

Reading up about it, it sounds beneficial in that if any small polyps are found, they can be cauterised during the procedure, and larger ones can be biopsied for checking in the histology lab.

 

It is kind of a chicken and egg thing - my body has been given meds to help with some issues, but slowing down my bowel may cause other serious problems..

If I did not have constipation or hemeroids then my doctor would not have reccommended this procedure for me, but since I do,  the sluggish bowel and straining may cause polyps that require the procedure to investigate. Arrgh! 

 

I could put off the procedure for a couple of months while I keep tapering, but don't think that will make much difference in the long run.


Oct. 7th, 2016: 4.5 mg Mirtazapine + 1.5 mg Lorazepam + 375 mg Venlafaxine

July 28th, 2016: 5.0 mg Mirtazapine + 1.5 mg Lorazepam + 375 mg Venlafaxine

July 4th, 2016: 5.5 mg Mirtazapine + 1.5 mg Lorazepam + 375 mg Venlafaxine

June 21, 2016: 5.5 mg Mirtazapine + 1.5 mg Lorazepam + 375 mg Venlafaxine 

May 30, 2016: 6.0 mg Mirtazapine + 1.5 mg Lorazepam + 375 mg Venlafaxine 

May 8, 2016: 6.75 mg Mirtazapine + 1.5 mg Lorazepam + 375 mg Venlafaxine 

Feb. 2015: 7.5 mg Mirtazapine + 1.5 mg Lorazepam + 375 mg Venlafaxine (Mirt. prescribed for drug-resistant depression as I was already on max. dose of Venlafaxine)

Dec. 2014: 1.5 mg Lorazepam + 375 mg Venlafaxine

Nov: 2014: 8 mg Lorazepam + 375 mg Venlafaxine


#66 compsports

compsports

    Platinum star

  • Members
  • PipPipPipPipPip
  • 2,353 posts
  • LocationUnited States

Posted 11 January 2017 - 11:37 AM

Tough call Bridgetini.   Good luck with your decision.


Drug cocktail 1995 - 2010
Started taper of Adderall, Wellbutrin XL, Remeron, and Doxepin in 2006
Finished taper on June 10, 2010

Diagnosed with sleep apnea 2012 and on pap machine

Dealing with protracted sleep issues


#67 Marsha

Marsha

    Silver star

  • Members
  • PipPipPip
  • 513 posts
  • LocationUS

Posted 15 January 2017 - 06:04 PM

I had an appointment with a gastro last week to schedule a colonoscopy but could not get to the appt due to severe storm flooding and road closures. Called to reschedule and was told the office would call to reschedule. It took two months to get an appointment. I don't want to wait another two months. Might try the Cologuard and if anything shows up will get in right away I would hope. Has anyone tried Cologuard?
Hashimotos 1988 started on levothyroxine. .1994-2012 all the different kinds of antidepressants. 1997 xanax 1.5 klonopin 2006. Geodon started 2003 160 mgs. Many neuroleptics. Seems like l have been on everything. gabapentin 1800 mg 2013 librium 75 mg then 60mg 5/15 Tapered trazodone from October 2014 450 mgs to march 2015 0 mgs. Geodon reduced from 80 mg 8/2014 to 0 12/19/15. switched to 3 mgs of clonazepam 11/15. 12/16 2 mg clonazepam. Currently 1.88 mg clonazepam 845 mg gabapentin. 88 mcg levothyroxine 10 mcg liothyronine. Tapered prevacid 8/16 after 6 six years use. Supplements:D3 2000 iu. Digestive enzymes, probiotic. No gluten, sugar, dairy. Eating nutrient dense foods to promote healing. Gentle daily walks in the fresh air.

#68 LostInSpace

LostInSpace

    Member

  • Members
  • PipPip
  • 79 posts
  • LocationBucks County, PA

Posted 16 January 2017 - 12:25 PM

How about whatever was given to empty your colon the

 

 

It is possible to have a colonoscopy without the sedatives. Discuss this with your gastroenterologist. If you want to do this, it helps if your gastroenterologist has done colonoscopy without sedation before.

 

Some people do have colons that are convoluted and find the procedure too uncomfortable to do without sedation. Small women are the most prone to this condition. However, I am a small woman and I had no problems whatsoever without a sedative. (You can't avoid the laxatives beforehand, though.)

 

My appetite was excellent after the procedure.

 

Had the colonoscopy yesterday.

 

There were a few ouchy moments -- intense pangs lasting a few seconds each -- and I wouldn't say it was fun, but the procedure itself wasn't that difficult.

 

The staff did their best to persuade me to get the anesthesia, but I held firm. They had an anesthesia plan B ready in case I found the pain unbearable.

 

I saw my entire colon and chatted with the gastroenterologist, nurse, and technician throughout.

 

The gastroenterologist said I had the colon of a teenager. It did look pink and healthy. She praised me for being so relaxed -- she said she could see it in my colon.

 

The team was amazed I did it without drugs. The doctor said she was so proud of me about 20 times.

 

In colonoscopy, as in all things "all things must pass." Have a good attitude and you, too, can do a colonoscopy without drugs.

 

Hello - what about the substance they gave you to empty your colon the day before, no issues with that?  

 day before, no issues with that?


1996-2014 - 3mg Clonazepam - Started weaning off in 2010, took 4 years.  All is fine.

2010-2014 - 30mg - 180mg percocets per day.  Quit CT in 2014.  All is fine.

2010-2014 - Mixed in Suboxen while not on percs... 8mg-32mg per day.  Quit CT in 2014.  All is fine (I think)  Opiates don't fully work yet.

2015 - Quit smoking weed, all is fine.

2015- Stopped drinking, all is fine.

2015-  Stopped drinking coffee, all is fine.

2010-2014 - 10mg of Lexapro for first 2 years, then 15mg for another 2 years

Quit over 3 week period - still experiencing bad withdrawal, but very slowly getting better... too slow.  

9/4/2015 - Reinstated 1mg liquid Lexapro.  So far, it's not helping... maybe hurting but not sure yet.

9/5/2015 - Stopped the 1mg, made it worse.  I will ride it out, currently drug free.

 

"The harder the battle, the sweeter the victory"


#69 Altostrata

Altostrata

    Administrator

  • Administrators
  • PipPipPipPipPipPip
  • 23,894 posts
  • LocationSan Francisco, CA

Posted 16 January 2017 - 02:45 PM

You cannot get around having to take the laxative.


This is not medical advice. Discuss any decisions about your medical care with a knowledgeable medical practitioner.

"It has become appallingly obvious that our technology has surpassed our humanity." -- Albert Einstein

All postings © copyrighted.