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Schmidt, 2014 Prebiotic intake reduces the waking cortisol response and alters emotional bias in healthy volunteers

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Addax

Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2014 Dec 3.

Prebiotic Intake Reduces the Waking Cortisol Response and Alters Emotional Bias In Healthy Volunteers

Kristin Schmidt, Philip J. Cowen, Catherine J. Harmer, George Tzortzis, Steven Errington, and Philip W. J. Burnet

Abstract at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25449699 Link: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00213-014-3810-0/fulltext.html

Rationale
There is now compelling evidence for a link between enteric microbiota and brain function. The ingestion of probiotics modulates the processing of information that is strongly linked to anxiety and depression, and influences the neuroendocrine stress response. We have recently demonstrated that prebiotics (soluble fibres that augment the growth of indigenous microbiota) have significant neurobiological effects in rats, but their action in humans has not been reported.

Objectives
The present study explored the effects of two prebiotics on the secretion of the stress hormone, cortisol and emotional processing in healthy volunteers.

Methods
Forty-five healthy volunteers received one of two prebiotics (fructooligosaccharides, FOS, or Bimuno®-galactooligosaccharides, B-GOS) or a placebo (maltodextrin) daily for 3 weeks. The salivary cortisol awakening response was sampled before and after prebiotic/placebo administration. On the final day of treatment, participants completed a computerised task battery assessing the processing of emotionally salient information.

Results
The salivary cortisol awakening response was significantly lower after B-GOS intake compared with placebo. Participants also showed decreased attentional vigilance to negative versus positive information in a dot-probe task after B-GOS compared to placebo intake. No effects were found after the administration of FOS.

Conclusion
The suppression of the neuroendocrine stress response and the increase in the processing of positive versus negative attentional vigilance in subjects supplemented with B-GOS are consistent with previous findings of endocrine and anxiolytic effects of microbiota proliferation. Further studies are therefore needed to test the utility of B-GOS supplementation in the treatment of stress-related disorders.
Keywords Cortisol Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis Gut microbiota Prebiotics Anxiety Attention Emotional processing

Edited by Altostrata
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Ever

Now THAT is cool Addax!

 

I've been studying nutrition for over 50 years now, human, dog, horse, rat, ferret etc etc. I still do not consider myself an expert. But more and more I'm realising how much the gut has to do with our mental health.

 

Recently, my horse had problems with his feet and had to go on painkillers and steroids for 10 days. His feet came right fairly quickly, but he was noticeably depressed for several weeks after that. This has happened before with other animals I've had. I believe that their gut flora has been affected by the drugs.

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Meimeiquest

Yes, thank you, Addax. How do you get B-GOS?

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Barbarannamated

Yes, thank you, Addax. How do you get B-GOS?

Ditto. What is B-GOS and where can I get it? Thanks, Addax.

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Petunia

 

Yes, thank you, Addax. How do you get B-GOS?

Ditto. What is B-GOS and where can I get it? Thanks, Addax.

 

 

It sounds promising, thanks Addax.  I found this:

 

http://www.medtrition.com/preb2-about/?PHPSESSID=442c76debf930588041209986f7a22c0

 

This link contains some discussion and other sources for purchase:

 

http://www.reddit.com/r/Nootropics/comments/2ov11x/prebiotic_intake_reduces_the_waking_cortisol/

 

edit:  I just ordered 30 sachets from the UK here:   https://www.bimuno.com/

 

Will start a topic in symptoms when I try it

Edited by Petu
added links and updated

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Addax

I'm glad people found hope in this article. I know I did on two levels. Obviously the cortisol thing, but also the part about attending to more positive rather than negative information.

 

It does make sense given how much diet can influence mood, sleep, and energy levels. It also made me think about the fact that 90% of our Serotonin is in our gut and well... There's a lot of stuff in our gut.

 

Thank you for finding the resource to purchase, Petu!

 

Please post if you find the prebiotic helpful!

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Altostrata

Note: Ingesting complex carbohydrates, such as legumes, that take a long time to digest can be calming to the nervous system as it keeps blood sugar stable. Low blood sugar generates adrenaline, cortisol's shorter-acting cousin.

 

Most of us probably wake up with lower blood sugar in the morning.

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Rhiannon

I agree that the lower blood sugar in the morning contributes to the problem for me, but the actual constitution of the intestinal flora (what kinds of bacteria and how much of different kinds)--it is true from what research I've seen referenced that as they say "There is now compelling evidence for a link between enteric microbiota and brain function".  

 

I definitely notice it in myself and my own gutbrain. For me the diet that works best to keep it all calmed down is (unfortunately) a low-starch modified GAPs diet with minimal wheat (no wheat at all would probably be better but I don't have that much self-control).

 

Anyway, yes, if anyone tries the prebiotics, please let us know how it works for you. It would be nice to have something else to add to the arsenal, especially when I'm traveling and can't bring my kefir and don't have as many dietary options. I will probably try it myself, I'm just hesitant to spend money on yet another supplement after having thrown so many hundreds of dollars worth in the trash over the years.

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Rhiannon

I took penicillin for two days last week and my gut is not happy. I think I'm going to try this stuff (in addition to being better about my diet, I went to visit my daughter over the weekend and had some sugar, which I can usually handle in small amounts but not so much right now!)

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Addax

A little more on B-GOS:

 

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2008 Nov (Vol. 88, no. 5, 1438-1446

Modulation of the fecal microflora profile and immune function by a novel trans-galactooligosaccharide mixture (B-GOS) in healthy elderly volunteers

 

Jelena Vulevic, Alexandra Drakoularakou, Parveen Yaqoob, George Tzortzis, and Glenn R Gibson.

 

Abstract at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18996881 and Full text available at: http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/88/5/1438.long

 

BACKGROUND:

Aging is associated with reduced numbers of beneficial colonic bifidobacteria and impaired immunity. Galactooligosaccharides (GOSs) stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria in younger adults, but little is known about their effects in the elderly and their immunomodulatory capacity.

 

OBJECTIVE:

We assessed the effect of a prebiotic GOS mixture (B-GOS) on immune function and fecal microflora composition in healthy elderly subjects.

 

DESIGN:

In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, 44 elderly subjects were randomly assigned to receive either a placebo or the B-GOS treatment (5.5 g/d). Subjects consumed the treatments for 10 wk, and then went through a 4-wk washout period, before switching to the other treatment for the final 10 wk. Blood and fecal samples were collected at the beginning, middle (5 wk), and end of the test period. Predominant bacterial groups were quantified, and phagocytosis, natural killer (NK) cell activity, cytokine production, plasma cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol were measured.

 

RESULTS:

B-GOS significantly increased the numbers of beneficial bacteria, especially bifidobacteria, at the expense of less beneficial groups compared with the baseline and placebo. Significant increases in phagocytosis, NK cell activity, and the production of antiinflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) and significant reduction in the production of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1beta, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) were also observed. B-GOS exerted no effects on total cholesterol or HDL-cholesterol production, however.

 

CONCLUSIONS:

B-GOS administration to healthy elderly persons resulted in positive effects on both the microflora composition and the immune response. Therefore, B-GOS may be a useful dietary candidate for the enhancement of gastrointestinal health and immune function in elderly persons.

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Brighid

Very interesting! Might this product also be in keeping with the B-GOS used in the study? It's available via Amazon and looks like it may be less pricey--though I haven't tried to compare dose, etc: http://www.amazon.com/Vegetarian-Prebiotic-Seeking-Health-Physician-Formulated/dp/B00OUCFWXY/ref=pd_sbs_hpc_6?ie=UTF8&refRID=1JZ8K52V4TK0Z29DWMWZ

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Addax

To be honest, I'm not sure. It appears to have the GOS but you would be best off calling the manufacturer or doing a Google search on the product.

 

Petunia has started using Bimuno, so you may also want to check her thread for updates.

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btdt

The ad for Bimuno  says it works in 7 days there seems to be many different products. I want it. 

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mammaP

I've ordered some, will report how it goes here after a couple of weeks. Hope it is good stuff, my gut is playing up  right now!

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Addax

I was just thinking I might order some now that I've begun tapering... I may wait to see what you and Petunia ultimately say about ti.

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Altostrata

The types of prebiotics discussed in this article are commonly found in legumes.

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Addax

Funny you say that. When I asked about them at the health food store the guy said sarcastically "you mean food?"

 

I suppose I could eat beans more often, but I don't like to cook and devolving a powder in liquid just seems easier. :-P

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Altostrata

Lentils and split green peas work just as well.

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btdt

For a long time I ate lentils at least twice a wk.. tossed with garlic and lemon.. craved them like mad before wd I had never eaten a lentil in my life. It was during my good time when I was dieting and cooking a lot and feeling so much better than now. 

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btdt

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2982.2010.01664.x/full

 

The microbiome-gut-brain axis: from bowel to behavior

 

 

Behavioral and neurochemical consequences of growing up germ-free

Neufeld and colleagues in this issue of this Journal11 use female germ-free mice to demonstrate that the absence of a conventional microbiota results in a reduction in anxiety behavior in the elevated plus maze, a well validated model of anxiolytic action (see Fig. 1). These authors also show an upregulation in the expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus of these germ-free animals. Brain derived neurotrophic factor is crucial for supporting neuronal survival and encouraging the growth and differentiation of new neurons and synapses and thus is involved in the regulation of multiple aspects of cognitive and emotional behaviors.12 Whilst there is a clear relationship between chronic stress states, major depression and BDNF,13 the association between anxiety and BDNF appears to be more complex with the authors finding positive, negative and no correlation between hippocampal levels and anxiety.14–16 Thus, it is unclear whether the changes in hippocampal BDNF observed in the study of Neufeld and colleagues actually relates to the behavioral changes observed.

Interestingly, and somewhat discordant with the behavioral data, an increase in the stress hormone corticosterone was noted in the plasma of the germ-free mice. Moreover, a decrease in the NR2B subunit of the NMDA receptor in the amygdala, but not hippocampus, of germ-free animals was observed which the authors speculate may contribute to the anxiolytic-like effect noted. In addition, a down-regulation of the 5-HT1A auto receptor was also present in the dentate gyrus of the germ-free mice.11

These data together provide important and direct evidence that microbiota can influence brain and behavior, in this case anxiety. They build on previous studies from Sudo and colleagues17 which demonstrate that male germ-free mice have an increased stress response (although no basal changes in hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis function were noted in these studies) coupled with decreased hippocampal and cortical BDNF, and decreased NR1 (hippocampus) and NR2A (hippocampus and cortex).17 The reasons for the discrepancies between the molecular changes in these studies and that of Neufeld and colleagues are unclear at present. Gender may play a role in such effects. Indeed, recent data from our laboratory show that the neurochemical and endocrine but not immune effects of growing up in a germ-free environment is only evident in male animals.18 Another important difference between the studies is the method of mRNA expression analysis (in situ hybridization vs quantitative real-time PCR). One significant caveat to the data generated by Neufeld and colleagues is that their studies were carried out on commercially sourced germ-free animals and were conducted just 48 h following arrival at their facility. The impact of transport stress and the lack of information regarding gnotobiotic status are two major confounds to the study.19 Moreover, whereas Sudo and colleagues demonstrated that recolonization with Bifidobacteria species reversed the germ-free induced effects, no attempt at recolonization occurred in Neufeld et al.’s study. However, despite these limitations their work is among the first to show a direct link between anxiety-related behavior and the microbiota and thus is an exciting and important contribution to the literature.

Jump to… Probiotics and behavior/central neurotransmitters

Probiotics are beneficial in the treatment of the gastrointestinal symptoms of disorders such as IBS.20 Clinical evidence is mounting to support the role of probiotic intervention in reducing the anxiety and stress response as well as improving mood in IBS patients and those with chronic fatigue.21–23 Recently, a study assessing the effect of a combination of Lactobacillus helveticus and Bifidobacterium longum on both human subjects and rats showed that these probiotics reduced anxiety in animals and had beneficial psychological effects with a decrease in serum cortisol in patients.24 While the mechanism of action is not known, some probiotics do have the potential to lower inflammatory cytokines,20,25 decrease oxidative stress and improve nutritional status.21 The modulation of systemic inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress could potentially lead to increased BDNF,21 known to be involved in depression and anxiety.13,14

Lactobacillus reuteri, a potential probiotic known to modulate the immune system26 decreases anxiety as measured on the elevated plus maze as well as reducing the stress-induced increase of corticosterone in mice.27 This probiotic alters the mRNA expression of both GABAAand GABAB receptors in the central nervous system. Alterations in these receptors are associated with anxious and depressive-like behaviors in animal models. Vagotomy in these animals prevented the anxiolytic and antidepressant effects of this bacterium as well as the effects on the central GABA receptors. This suggests that parasympathetic innervation is necessary for L. reuteri to participate in the microbiota-brain interaction.

Previous studies28 have shown that probiotic agents can modulate antidepressant-like behavior with Bifidobacterium infantis having antidepressant properties in the forced swim test, a well-established model in the evaluation of pharmacological antidepressant activity.29Chronic B. infantis administration also led to a suppression in stimulation-induced increases in peripheral pro-inflammatory cytokines and increases in plasma tryptophan,28 both of which have been implicated in depression.30,31 We have also investigated the impact of B. infantis on a preclinical model of IBS (maternal separation model)32 and showed that this bacterium was able to reverse some of the early-life stress-induced changes.

Taken together, it is clear that certain probiotic strains can modulate various aspects of the microbiome-gut-brain axis.33 However, these effects are bacterial strain dependent and care must be taken in extrapolating data obtained from one organism to another. Nonetheless, the accumulating data suggest a clear ability of probiotic and potential probiotic strains to modulate brain and behavior.

 

There is more at the link maybe this should have its own thread but seems related to me.. other might miss it by itself.  I was interested in L.Reuteri specifically as I have been researching probiotics for a couple of wks now.  While doing this research I have learned that Bifidobacterium infantis is the one a lot people with bowel issues find helpful.  While I was looking to find a probiotic to help with bowel issues I found the L. Reuteri probiotic hit a  lot more of my symptoms.  Including tooth issues as it apparently has the ability to kill bacteria in the gut ...heal the gut lining and is involved  in immune modulation. 

http://metabolichealing.com/bacteria-the-brain-the-powerful-behavior-modifying-effects-of-the-gut/

independently of the brain. The enteric nervous system of the gut is comprised of about 500 million neurons. The enteric nervous system can “think”, “remember” and “learn” on its own accord.

The enteric nervous system lines the mucosa of various organs: esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, pancreas, gall bladder, and biliary tree.

The ENS is involved in the regulation of several essential digestive functions. Most notably:

  • Peristalsis, intestinal motility: bowel muscular contractions
  • Digestive enzyme secretion: to break down food particles
  • Participates in the regulation of esophageal muscles: moving food to your stomach
  • Motility of the gall bladder, releasing bile into the duodenum
  • Assists the hormone secretin in releasing pancreatic enzymes
  • Exchange of fluids and electrolytes in the gut
  • Blood flow through the gastric mucosa
  • Also involved in the regulation of the gastic and esophageal sphincters: preventing acid food from entering the throat, and allowing food to pass into the duodenum from the stomach
  • Uses more than 30 neurotransmitters, including serotonin, GABA, dopamine, acetylcholine

Many researchers postulate that the enteric neurons have an important role to play in regulating behavior. This is likely due to the fact that the enteric nervous system communicates with the brain via the vagus nerve. It is known that strains of intestinal bacteria have a powerful regulatory effect on the enteric neurons. It is also known that these same bacterial colonies can induce behavior-modifying effects.

 “As Bifidobacterium longum decreases excitability of enteric neurons, it may signal to the central nervous system by activating vagal pathways at the level of the enteric nervous system.”

Lactobacillus reuteri has been studied for its anti-anxiety effects and for its powerful modulation of the immune system, especially the inhibition of TNF-a. Additionally, L-reuteri is well established to modify the activity of the neurotransmitter GABA in the central nervous system. The same is true for lactobacillus rhamnosous. 

 

L.Reuteri came out as the star for me personally it is found in breast milk and each species it is a bit different so has to come from human breast milk.  I am still a firm believer in trying only one thing at a time and now sourcing this BioGaia seems to be the only game in town.  So if I can find it I will be trying it and reporting back. 

 

"

Chemical and trauma-induced injury[edit]

Treating colonic tissue from rats with acetic acid causes an injury similar to the human condition ulcerative colitis. Treating the injured tissue with L. reuteri immediately after removing the acid almost completely reverses any ill effects,[52] leading to the possibility that L. reuteri may be beneficial in the treatment of human colitis patients."

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lactobacillus_reuteri

 

I was told I have antibiotic induced colitis so this is the one I am going to try first.  I will let you know what happens. 

This may need to be moved if so please put a link to where it goes to my page....thanks. 

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Meimeiquest

After not eating many legumes for awhile, I had them for lunch yesterday and woke up without anxiety this a.m. But it could just be where I am in tapering inositol. Supposedly legumes are best tolerated when soaked for days, changing water twice a day, and cooked in pressure cooker for high heat. Ideally sprouted, but I haven't been able to get regular non-organic beans to sprout.

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LoveandLight

The Bimuno sachets, I was going to buy them and then realised they have lactose..so just to note that in here.

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btdt

I am doing a running update on my page found in my signature at the bottom of this post 

peace

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fema4psychiatrists

hell yeah im up for this! any product to recommend like someone asked above? thanks. Funny someone mentioned beans. I went on a bean diet by Karen hurd. I don't think it was helpful though due to restrictions and constant food prep. I used canned beans! 

 

any product recommendations? Im convinced the breaking of my intestines by medications is involved in this!

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fema4psychiatrists

I've ordered some, will report how it goes here after a couple of weeks. Hope it is good stuff, my gut is playing up  right now!

Any news on how it went or going? 

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